|Goddess of Power, Creation and Victory of Good over Evil|
||Tridevi, Adi Parashakti, Devi, Adi Shakti, Shakti, Bhuvaneshwari, Mother of Kaushiki|
||Om Bhagawateh Parvate Namah|
||Trident, Sword, Mace, Conch shell, discus, Bow and arrow, shield, Lotus flower, Snake, Third eye.|
||Lion or Tiger|
Parvati (Devanagri: पार्वती,
IAST: Pārvatī) is known as the
motherly form of Mother Goddess Gauri Jagadamba, Parvati is another form of
Shakti, the wife of Shiva and the gentle aspect of Maha Devi or Durga, the Great
Goddess. Parvati is considered to be a complete incarnation of Adi
Parashakti or Goddess Durga, with all other Goddesses being her
incarnations or manifestations. Parvati is nominally the second consort of
Shiva, the Hindu God of destruction and rejuvenation. However, she is not
different from Sati, being the reincarnation of Shiva's first wife. Parvati is
the mother of the gods Ganesha and Kartikeya.
Some communities also believe her to be the sister of Vishnu. She is also regarded as
the daughter of King Himavan. Parvati, when depicted
alongside Shiva, generally appears with two arms, but when alone, she is
depicted having four, eight or ten arms, and is astride on a tiger or lion.
Generally considered a benevolent Goddess, Parvati also has wrathful
incarnations, such as Durga, Kali, Tara, Chandi, and the Dasha Mahavidyas (ten
great wisdoms) Kali, Tara, Tripur Sundari (Shodashi), Bhuvaneshwari, Bhairavi,
Chinnamasta, Dhumavati, Bagla Mukhi, Matangi and Kamala, as well as benevolent
forms like Katyayani, Maha Gauri, Kamalatmika, Bhuvaneshwari and Lalita.
Parvata is one of the Sanskrit words for "mountain";
"Parvati" translates to "She of the mountains" and refers to Parvati being born
the daughter of Himavan, lord of the mountains
and the personification of the Himalayas. Other names which
associate her with mountains are Shailaja (Daughter of the mountains),
Adrija or Nagajaa or Shailaputri (Daughter of Mountains),
'Haimavathi' (Daughter of Himavan) and 'Girija' or
'Girirajaputri' (Daughter of king of the mountains).
Parvati's name is also sometimes considered a form of 'pavitra', meaning
'sinless' or 'holy' in Sanskrit. Her consort is Shiva and she is the
sagun swaroop of the Supreme Being Adi
Parashakti that is the material form of the supreme power.
She is also known by 108 names from the Durga Saptashati. These
(invincible), Shakti (power), Ambika ('dear mother'), Gauri ('fair
complexioned'), Bhairavi ('ferocious'), Kali ('dissolver of
time'), Umā, Lalita, Mataji ('revered
mother'), Sahana ('pure'),
Maheshwari ('great goddess'). Bhavani, Shivaradni ('Queen of
Shiva'), and many hundreds of others. The Lalita sahasranama
contains an authoritative listing of 1,000 names of Parvati.
Two of Parvati's most famous epithets are Uma and Aparna. The name Uma is
used for Sati in earlier texts, but in the Ramayana, it is used as synonym
for Parvati. In the Harivamsa, Parvati is referred
to as Aparna ('One who took no sustenance') and then addressed as Uma,
who was dissuaded by her mother from severe austerity by saying u mā
The apparent contradiction that Parvati is addressed as the fair one,
Gauri, as well as the dark one, Kali or Shyama is a
philosophical matter. It suggests that the one calm and placid wife, Uma, in
times of danger, can transfer back to her primal fierce and angry or (sometimes)
Maternal nature as Kali, who stands uncloaked, with a foot on her husband's
chest. The twin opposite colors, white and black represent the two opposing
nature of the Goddess. Parvati is also the goddess of love and devotion, or
Parvati as Goddess of
Sarvarupe Sarveshe Sarvashakti Samanvite Bhayebhyastrahi no devi durge
It translates to: We bow down to Devi Durga, who is source of all forms
(sarvarupe), who is the goddess of all beings (sarveshe), in whom all power
exists (Sarvashakti samanvite) and who destroys all fear (bhaye bhyastrai no
devi). It is also believed that without her Shiva remains as Shava or Corpse,
for she is the ultimate source of power for all beings, gods and Devas.
Rise to prominenceedit
Parvati herself does not explicitly appear in Vedic literature, though the Kena
Upanishad (3.12) contains a goddess called Uma-Haimavati.
She appears as the shakti, or essential power, of the Supreme Brahman. Her
primary role is as a mediator who reveals the knowledge of Brahman to the Vedic trinity of
Agni, Vayu, and Indra, who were boasting about
their recent defeat of a group of demons.
But Kinsley notes: "it is little more than conjecture to identify her with the
later goddess Satī-Pārvatī, although [..] later texts that extol Śiva and
Pārvatī retell the episode in such a way to leave no doubt that it was Śiva's
Both textual and archaeological evidence suggests Sati-Parvati appears in the
epic period (400 BC–400 AD), as both the Ramayana and the Mahabharata present Parvati
as Shiva's wife.
However, it is not until the plays of Kalidasa (5th-6th centuries)
and the Puranas
(4th through the 13th centuries) that the myths of Sati-Parvati and Shiva
acquire more comprehensive details.
Kinsley adds that Parvati may have emerged from legends of non-aryan goddesses that lived in
Prof. Weber suggests that like Shiva is combination of various Vedic
gods Rudra and
Agni, the Puranic Parvati is a combination of Uma, Haimavati, Ambika and earlier
Parvati, identified as wives of Rudra; of others like Kali, who could be a wife
of Agni and of Gauri and others inspired by Nirriti.
Tate suggests Parvati is a mixture of the Vedic goddess Aditi and Nirriti,and being a
mountain goddess herself, was associated with other mountain goddesses like Durga and Kali in later
Birth and marriageedit
The Puranas repeatedly tell the tale of Sati's marriage to Shiva
against her father Daksha's wishes and her
subsequent self-immolation at Daksha's sacrifice, leaving Shiva
grief-stricken and having lost interest in worldly affairs. In the Brahma Vaivarta
Purana, Sati appears before Shiva, in her divine form, and reassures him
that she will return as the daughter of Himavan.
Sati is reborn as Parvati, the daughter of Himavat and Minavatiand is named
Parvati, 'daughter of Himavant ' .
Sati, as well as Parvati, are considered manifestations of Mahadevi, the great
In the Ramayana, the river goddess Ganga
is depicted as the elder sister of Parvati. In the Harivamsa, Parvati has two
younger sisters called Ekaparna and Ekapatala.
According to Devi Bhagawata Purana and Shiva Purana mount Himalaya and his wife
Mena perform extreme austerities to appease the goddess Adi Shakti. Pleased with
their penance the Adi Shakti agrees to be born as their daughter. When born
goddess Parvati has four arms and manifests a divine light which pervades the
entire Himalaya region on the auspicious tritiya day. Mena implores to the child
to withdraw its four armed form and make herself visible as a two armed normal
child to which the goddess agrees and becomes a normal girl child.
Wall carvings in Ellora Caves
- A scene
wedding of Shiva (four armed figure, right) and Parvati (two armed,
Parvati is depicted as interested in Shiva's tales and appearance from her
very birth and eventually remembering her previous life as Sati.
As Parvati grows into a young woman, she begins tapas (austerities) to
please Shiva to grant her wish to reunite with him. She is portrayed as
surpassing all other ascetics in austerity, undergoing severe mortifications and
fasting. Finally, Shiva tests her devotion by appearing himself in disguise to
criticize Shiva. Untouched by the act, Parvati retains her desire for Shiva,
compelling him to marry her. After the marriage, Parvati moves to Mount
Kailash, the residence of Shiva.
Kalidasa's epic Kumarasambhavam
("Birth of Kumara") details with matchlessly lyrical beauty the story of the
maiden Parvati: her devotions aimed at gaining the favor of Shiva, the
subsequent annihilation of Kamadeva, the consequent fall
of the universe into barren lifelessness, the subsequent marriage of Parvati and
Shiva, the birth of Kumara, and the eventual
resurrection of Kamadeva after Parvati
intercedes for him to Shiva.
Main forms of
As per devi bhagwata Purana, Goddess Parvati is lineal progenitor of all
other goddesses. She is one who is source of all forms of goddesses. She is
worshiped as one with many forms and name. Her different mood brings different
forms or incarnation.
- Durga is
demon fighting form of this Goddess, and some texts suggest Parvati took the
form of Goddess Durga to kill Demon Durgam.
- Kali is another
aspect that was assisted by Goddess Chandi while fighting with
rakta bija. She was born from the forehead of the goddess. But many
interpretations of scriptures suggests that it was Goddess Chamunda who has
gotten same iconography as goddess Kali who is nobody but an aspect of Kali,
even Parvati is considered to be Goddess Kali herself in her ferocious
- Goddess Chandi is the epithet of Maa
Durga, who is created by the collection of all demigods and trimurti power, and then
considered to be power of sagun parashakti (Parvati), She is black in color
and rides on lion, she is known as the original slayer of Demon Mahishasura,
considered to be a form taken by Durga herself.
- Ten Mahavidyas are the ten
aspects of Shakti, in tantra all have great importance in majority, they all
took birth from Goddess Sati, previous Incarnation of Shakti before Goddess
Parvati. There is no difference between Sati and Parvati.
- 52 Shakti Peethas of Sati,
proves that all Goddesses are expansions of the Goddess Parvati.
Durga nine forms of goddess Parvati
Incarnations of the Goddessedit
- Goddess Meenakshi
- Goddess Kamakshi
- Goddess Lalita, the Original Goddess of
Universe, Parvati is referred as her complete incarnation.
- Goddess Akhilandeshwari.
- Goddess Annapurna the representation of all that is complete and of food
is Parvati Herself. And many others
Parvati's legends are intrinsically related to Shiva. In the goddess-oriented
Shakta texts, that she is said to
transcend even Shiva, and is identified as the Supreme Being.
Just as Shiva is at once the presiding deity of destruction and regeneration,
the couple jointly symbolise at once both the power of renunciation and
asceticism and the blessings of marital felicity.
Parvati thus symbolises many different virtues esteemed by Hindu tradition:
fertility, marital felicity, devotion to the spouse, asceticism, and power.
Parvati represents the householder ideal in the perennial tension in Hinduism in
the household ideal and the ascetic ideal, re
presented by Shiva.
In classical Hindu mythology, the "raison d’être" of Parvati, and before that of
Sati, is to lure Shiva into marriage and thus into a wider circle of worldly
Parvati tames Shiva, the "great unpredictable madman" with her presence.
When Shiva does his violent, destructive Tandava dance, Parvati is
described as calming him or complementing his violence by slow, creative steps
of her own Lasya
In many myths, Parvati is not as much his complement as his rival, tricking,
seducing, or luring him away from his ascetic practices.
Again, Parvati subdues Shiva's immense sexual vitality. In this context, Shiva
Purana says: 'The linga of Shiva, cursed by the
sages, fell on the earth and burnt everything before it like fire. Parvati took
the form of a yoni
and calmed it by holding the linga in her yoni'. The Padma Purana also tells the
story of Parvati assuming the form of yoni to receive lingam of Shiva, who was
cursed by sage Bhrigu to be the form of the
Three images are central to the mythology, iconography and philosophy of
- The theme of Shiva-Shakti
- The image of Shiva as Ardhanarishvara (the
Lord who is half-woman)
- The image of the linga and the yoni
These images that combine the two deities, Shiva and Parvati, yield a vision
of reconciliation, interdependence and harmony between the way of the ascetic
and that of a householder.
Parvati as Annapurna, giving alms to
The couple are often depicted in the Puranas as engaged in
"dalliance" or seated on Mount Kailash or
discussing abstract concepts in Hindu theology. Occasionally, they are depicted
In stories of the birth of Kartikeya, the couple are described as love-making
generating the seed of Shiva. Parvati's union with Shiva symbolises the union of
a male and female in "ecstasy and sexual bliss".
In art, Parvati is depicted seated on Shiva's knee or standing beside him
(together the couple is referred to as Uma-Maheshvara or
Hara-Gauri) or as Annapurna (the
goddess of grain) giving alms to Shiva.
Shaiva approaches tend to look upon Parvati primarily as the Shiva's
submissive and obedient wife and helpmate. However, Shaktas focus on Parvati's
equality or even superiority to her consort. The story of the birth of the ten
Mahavidyas (Wisdom Goddesses)
of Shakta Tantrism. This event occurs while
Shiva is living with Parvati in her father's house. Following an argument, he
attempts to walk out on her. Her rage manifests in the form of ten terrifying
goddesses who block Shiva's every exit.
As the scholar David Kinsley explains,
The fact that [Parvati] is able to physically restrain Shiva dramatically
makes the point that she is superior in power. The theme of the superiority of
the goddess over male deities is common in Shakta texts, [and] so the story is
stressing a central Shakta theological principle. ... The fact that Shiva and
Parvati are living in her father's house in itself makes this point, as it is
traditional in many parts of India for the wife to leave her father's home
upon marriage and become a part of her husband's lineage and live in his home
among his relatives. That Shiva dwells in Parvati's house thus implies Her
priority in their relationship. Her priority is also demonstrated in her
ability, through the Mahavidyas, to thwart Shiva's will and assert her
Aum Girijayai cha vidmahe Shivapriyayai cha dhimahi tanno durgah
May the goddess Durga, who is the daughter of the mountains and the beloved
of lord Shiva illumine me with spiritual wisdom
Sarvamangala mangalye shive sarvardha sadhike sharanye tryambake gouri
I bow down to and take the refuge of the three eyed Mother Gouri(Parvati) of
fair countenance,who is the embodiment of supreme auspiciousness,the giver of
all the benedictions,the beloved of Lord Shiva and the power of lord
During the initial stages when Parvathi was performing intense puja to Shiva
to obtain Shiva as her husband, Shiva kept testing her by destroying the Shiva
lingam she constructed to perform puja. Vishnu then helped in constructing a
Shiva lingam for Parvati which was not destroyed by Shiva because of the respect
Shiva had towards Vishnu.Thus Vishnu helped Paravthi in continuing her puja for
Shiva. This is when Parvathi tied a knot to Vishnu's hand and claimed him as her
brother. This is the reason during the marriage of Shiva and Parvathi, Vishnu
got involved in all the ceremonies that are supposed to be done by the bride's
brother. This is how Parvati is related to Vishnu as a sister.
Mother of Ganeshaedit
pouring water on the head of
who is being held by Parvati
Though Ganesh considered to be son of Shiva and Parvati, the Matsya Puran,
Shiva Puran and Skand Puran ascribe the birth of Ganesh to Parvati only, without
any form of participation of Shiva in Ganesh's birth. Once while Parvati yearned
to take a bath, there were no attendants around to guard her and stop anyone
from accidentally entering the house. Hence she created an image of a boy out of
turmeric paste which she prepared to cleanse her body, and infused life into it,
and thus Ganesh was born. Parvati was overjoyed that her own son was born and
she ordered Ganesh not to allow anyone to enter the house, and Ganesh obediently
followed his mother's orders. After a while Shiva returned and tried to enter
the house, Ganesh stopped him. Shiva requested the child very politely but
failed, Lord Shiva assigned his men to straighten out the boy. Shiva's men were
carrying weapons but the boy was not affraid of Lord Shiva's men, he was a
proficient warrior, he beat them with a stick. The Gods were watching from above
the sky, so did Lord Brahma and Lord Vishnu, they all went to Shiva. Shiva's men
told Lord Shiva that the boy had hurt them. Shiva told Lord Vishnu and Brahma
that a naughty boy had appeared in Kailash, Lord Brahma and Vishnu had an idea,
they would disguise themselves as saints and go set the boy straight. When the
disguised saints came to Ganesh, he did not know that Lord Brahma and Vishnu's
identities were hidden, the saints tried to reason with the boy so that he
apologize to Shiva but failed. Indra came with his huge, heavenly army, Parvati
came to know about the boy in trouble with the huge army, she was furious and
created two Goddesses, Kali and Gauri, she ordered them to help Ganesh to kill
the huge army of Indra, so when the army tried to attack Ganesh, Gauri and Kali
attacked them first, Kali used her scimitar to behead the armies of Indra and
Gauri used her trident to stab them. Meanwhile, Indra fled the battlefield and
got the news about Kali and Gauri helping Ganesh, Shiva came to the battlefield
where Ganesh was standing, Shiva asked him to move but to no avail. Ganesh even
waged a war so that Shiva lost his temper and beheaded Ganesh with his trident.
When Parvati came out and saw her son's lifeless body, she was very angry, she
started to question all Gods, even Lord Shiva why he killed Ganesh. Lord Shiva
tried in vain to reason with Parvati. She immediately revealed her true self as
Adi Shakti, she threatened to destroy everyone and everything. She called upon
the nine forms within her, the nine forms surrounded her, namely, Shailputri,
Brahmacharini, Chandraghanta, Kushmanda, Skandmata, Katyayani, Kaal Ratri, Maha
Gauri and Siddhidatri. She ordered them to destroy the whole world and the Gods
and the humans. She advised them that if her son does not get back to life, then
everyone and everything will be destroyed completely and the Nava Durga vanished
and left to go destroy different worlds--Siddhidatri chose the sky, Kushmanda
chose the outer space, Kaal Ratri chose the earth, Chandraghanta chose the
battlefield, Brahmacharini chose the heavens, Katyayani chose the hell, Skand
Mata chose houses of saints, Maha Gauri and Shailputri chose the Gods, humans
and saints, to get them all destroyed.
Meanwhile, Adi Shakti demanded that Shiva restore Ganesh's life at once. The
Gods prostrated at her feet and ordered Lord Vishnu, Lord Brahma, Lord Shiva,
Indra, Demi Gods and Shiva's men all together to travel north and return with
the first animal in sight. Adi Shakti vanished, leaving the headless human body
of Ganesh, lying. She went to destroy the 24 worlds with her nine
manifestations, her nine powers were out for apocalypse. They were surrounding
Adi Shakti from all sides to damage more.
Meanwhile, Lord Vishnu, Lord Brahma, Lord Shiva, Indra, Demi Gods and Shiva's
men were all inspecting the destruction that Adi Shakti and her powerful
Navdurga forms did, entirely all the creatures were destroyed, so were the
humans. Entirely all of the Godly army back in Kailash were destroyed by Kali
and Gauri, they disappeared very quickly when Lord Shiva, Vishnu, Brahma,
Indra's Gods and Shiva's men were on their way back to Kailash. One creature was
not destroyed. Lord Shiva was happy this one creature was not killed, Lord
Vishnu cuts the elephant's head with his discus. Lord Brahma creates the same
elephant head and attaches it to the elephant's body again. The elephant's head
was attached to Ganesh's body, bringing him back to life. Adi Shakti and her
furious nine forms were extremely busy destroying the whole world when they
heard a tiny voice: 'Mother'? Adi Shakti knew it was her son Ganesh, she hurried
back to Kailash, with her nine forms, Shiva showed the Goddess her son with an
elephant's head, her nine Navdurga forms went back inside her body. Adi Shakti
re-appeared as Parvati and saw Ganesh, she was extremely pleased that her son
was alive again, Shiva declared that the child be made head of the
ghost-followers (Ganas) of Shiva and worshipped by everyone before beginning any
activity, and Gods accepted this condition. Ganesh is identified as a God named
after his mother. He is called Umaputra, Parvatisuta, Gaurisuta meaning son of
Parvati and Heramba, "mother's beloved son".
Naturally, Parvati's unique characteristics have become more and more
obscured, as she absorbed more and more goddesses into her iconography.
Therefore, her depictions have become rather generic today. When shown with
Shiva, she carries a blue lotus in full bloom, shows the abhaya mudra (hand gesture of
fearlessness) and usually has one of her children on her knee. The only hint of
her former occult status is the somewhat languid appearance of her eyes, as one
who has recently emerged from deep meditation. Other goddesses are usually shown
with large staring eyes as this is considered a mark of beauty. The consorts of
the other two Gods of the trinity, Saraswati and Lakshmi, may be depicted alone,
but Parvati hasn’t been depicted this way for many centuries.
The goddess is usually represented as a fair and beautiful.
The colour of her vestments is milk-white, the colour of enlightenment and
knowledge. Since white is a combination of all hues it shows that She has all
the qualities or Gunas. Since white also depicts huelesness, it indicates that
She is devoid of all Gunas. Hence, She is referred to as Trigunatmika (having
the three gunas—Sattva, Rajas, and Tamas)—and at the same time being Nirguna
(without any gunas). She has three eyes. Her accoutrements tend to be those of a
Rishi (seer). She is also usually depicted with jatamukuta or a crown of matted
hair, as Shiva is usually depicted. She is also shown as having a crescent moon
bound in her locks, like Shiva.
Images of Parvati, wearing a sacred thread something not many women are
associated with and as this marks the second-birth or dwija it is seems
an advanced concept far beyond early pashupatas, and with her hair styled in a
top knot like a Rishi (seer) survive into the Chola period (approximately ninth
century A.D.). In fact, these two particularities were the only means of
distinguishing her statuary from the images of the Goddess Shri of the time.[citation
Her Mudras (symbolic hand gestures) are Kataka—fascination and enchantment,
Hirana—the antelope, the powers of nature and the elusive, Tarjani—gesture of
menace, and Chandrakal—the moon, a symbol of intelligence. Kataka must be
affected by one of the foremost hands as it is a means of drawing the worshiper
closer. Tarjani must be described with the left hand, which symbolises contempt,
and usually in the back set of hands. If Parvati is depicted with two hands,
then Tarjani and Chandrakal may be dropped but Hirana and Kataka are signature
except in very modern representations, where Abhaya (fearlessness), and Varada,
(beneficence), are used.
Parvati's Vahana (animal vehicle), is
usually considered to be a Lion nowadays, in her form as Durga, but was probably
originally one of the mountain lions native to the Himalayas. It was also,
likely, a Lioness, as Parvati's cult is so exclusively feminine.
Although there is no documentation to support an affiliation between Goddess
Parvati and this wondrous, mythic animal, it does seem an appropriate vehicle
for an ascetic magical mountain goddess with an exclusively female clergy and
In certain aspects of Parvati, such as the Mahagouri form of the Navadurga
group, her vahana is Shiva's vahana, Nandi, the sacred bull.
In several myths, the presence of a dark, violent side of this otherwise
benign Parvati is suggested. When approached by the gods to defeat demons,
Parvati morphs back to her true self, shakti, which is pure energy, untamed,
unchecked and chaotic. Her wrath crystallizes into a dark, blood thirsty,
tangled-hair Goddess with an open mouth and a drooping tongue. This goddess is
usually identified as the terrible mahakali or Kali.
In Linga Purana, Parvati
summons Kali on the request of Shiva, to destroy a female asura (demoness) Daruka. Even
after destroying the demoness, Kali's wrath could not be controlled. She ran
around the three worlds in her mad, blind fury and creation was endangered. To
lower Kali's rage, Shiva appeared as a crying baby in the middle of a
The cries of the baby raised the maternal instinct of Kali who started
breast-feeding Shiva and resorted back to her benign form as Parvati.
Kali is associated and identified with Parvati as Shiva's consort.
In Skanda Purana, Parvati is said to have assumed a form of a warrior-goddess
and defeated a demon called Durg who assumes the form of a buffalo.
Thereafter, she is by the name Durga.
In myths relating to her defeat of demons Sumbha and Nisumbha,
Durga emerges from Parvati when Parvati sheds her outer sheath, which takes an
identity of its own as a warrior goddess.
Although Parvati is considered to be synonymous with Kali, Durga, Kamakshi, Meenakshi, Gauri and many
others in modern day Hinduism, many of these “forms” or incarnations originated
from different sects, or traditions, and the distinctions from Parvati are
(sanctioned works of religious doctrine) attribute the golden colour of goddess
Gauri's skin and ornaments to the story of Parvati casting off her unwanted dark
complexion after Shiva teased her, but the cult of Gauri tells a different
story. Gauri is in essence a fertility Goddess, and is venerated as a corn
mother which would seem to suggest that she owes her colouring to the hues of
ripening grain, for which she is propitiated.
So whatever be said, Goddess Parvati has two main forms, what actually
shaktas says out of which one is Lalita who is Supreme in Srikula family
of shaktism and second one is Durga or kali who is supreme in kalikula
Attainment of the
Demon Durgasur takes over the three worlds by absorbing the vedas which are
the sources of power to the gods by the grace of Lord Brahma. The Gods go to
Lord Shiva for help who requests Parvati to kill Durgasur. The reason being,
Parvati, the original representation of Adi Shakti, the source of power to the
vedas themselves, could palpably be the only recourse to destroy Durgasur even
if he had the vedas protecting him. She creates a clone of herself in the form
of a damsel messenger known as Kaal Ratri. Parvati orders Kaal Ratri to go to
Durgasur to send a message to him asking him to surrender heaven back to the
gods. Kaal Ratri tells Durgasur that Parvati had sent her as a messenger and
gave him a chance to surrender.Durgasur,furious,orders his soldiers to take her
to custody. Kaal Ratri assumes a gigantic size as her annihilative form and
vanishes. Back at Kailasa Parvati imbues Kaal Ratri inside her body again and
appears in the war field to fight Durgasur. Parvati gives her introduction to
Durgasur that she is nature,the primodial power, not any God, man or a demon and
after a long battle destroys him. Since she destroyed the demon durgasur she was
henceforth praised by the gods as Durga
This story has been taken from Srimad Devi Bhagavata Mahapurana. There is a
general confusion in India regarding Durga being a combination of
Parvati,Lakshmi and Sarasvati. But this is false as Durga is a form of Parvati.
There has never been an involvement of Lakshmi or Sarasvati regarding Durga
unlike those shown in popular mythological television shows. The exact chapter
of how Parvati(without Lakshmi or Sarasvati's involvement) takes the form of
Durga is from the 7th book 28th chapter of Devi Bhagavata Mahapurana. The exact
word to word translation is found in http://www.greenmesg.org/mantras_slokas/devi_shakambari-shakambari_mahatmyam.php
इति संप्रार्थिता देवी भुवनेशी महेश्वरी । अनंताक्षिमयं रूपं दर्शयामास पार्वती
॥३३॥ नीलांजनसमप्रख्यं नीलपद्मायतेक्षणम् । सुकर्कशसमोत्तुङ्गवृत्तपीनघनस्तनम् ॥३४॥
Iti Sam-Praarthitaa Devii Bhuvane(a-Ii)shii Mahe[a-Ii]shvarii |
Ananta-Akssimayam Ruupam Darshayaamaasa Paarvatii ||33||
Niilaanjana-Sama-Prakhyam Niila-Padma-Ayate[i-A]kssannam |
Meaning: 33.1: Thus, when the Brahmins Prayed together to the Devi Bhuvaneshi
Maheswari, ... 33.2: ... Devi Parvati Manifested Herself in a Divine Form
shining with innumerable Eyes, 34.1: Her Color was distinct like the Dark-Blue
Collyrium, and Her Eyes were wide like Blue Lotuses, 34.2: Her Breasts were
High, Firm and Round.
In this verse the specific use of the word Parvati shows that Durga is but a
form of Parvati.
Even later in the Devi Bhagavata Purana 9th book chapter one,Prakriti
khanda Lord Narayana describes Durga as one of the 5 forms of Adi Shakti but
specifically calls her the mother of Lord Ganesha and wife of Lord Shiva. Lord
Narayana tells Narada "By Her command came out five Forms of Her, either for the
purpose of creation or for bestowing Favour and Grace to the Bhaktas (devotees).
Durgâ the Mother of Lord Ganesha, comes, as the first, the most auspicious,
loved by Lord Shiva. She is Nârâyanî, Visnu Mâyâ, and of the nature of Pûrna
Brahmâ (the Supreme Brahmâ). This eternal, all auspicious Devî is the Presiding
Deity of all the Devas and is, therefore, worshipped and praised by Brahmâ and
the other Devas, Munis, and Manus. This Bhagavatî Durgâ Devî, (when She gets
pleased) destroys all the sorrows, pains and troubles of the Bhaktas that have
taken Her refuge, and gives them Dharma, everlasting name and fame, all
auspicious things and bliss and all the happiness, nay, the Final Liberation! "
Parvati worshipped as Gauri
The Gauri Festival is celebrated on the seventh, eighth, ninth of Bhadrapada Shukla paksha. She is
worshipped as the goddess of harvest and protectress of women. Her festival,
chiefly observed by women, is closely associated with the festival of her son
Ganesha (Ganesh Chaturthi). The
festival is popular in Maharashtra and Karnataka.
In Rajasthan the worship of Gauri happens during the Gangaur festival. The festival
starts on the first day of Chaitra the day after Holi and continues for 18 days.
Images of Issar and Gauri are made from Clay for the festival.
Another very popular festival in regard to the Mother Parvati is Navratri, in
which all her manfestations are worshiped for nine days. Actually the festival
is associated with Her warrior appearance is Mother Durga, with her nine forms
i.e. Shailputri, Brahmacharini, Chandraghanta, Kashmunda, Skandmata, Katyani,
Kalratri, Mahagauri, Siddhidaatri.
Another festival Gauri tritiya is celebrated from Chaitra shukla third
to Vaishakha shukla third. It is believed that Parvati spends a month at her
parent's home now. This festival is popular in Maharashtra and Karnataka, less
observed in North India and unknown in Bengal. The unwidowed women of the
household erect a series of platforms in a pyramidal shape with the image of the
goddess at the top and collection of ornaments, images of other Hindu deities,
pictures, shells etc. below. Neighbours are invited and presented with turmeric,
fruits, flowers etc. as gifts. At night, prayers are held by singing and
dancing.Down south in Tamil Nadu and Andhra The Kethara Gauri Vritham festival
is celebrated on the new moon day of Diwali and the unwidowed women of the
family fast for the whole day and prepare sweets and worship the goddess for the
well-being of the family
Shiva udu raaj mukhi temple
The Mookambika Devi temple in Kollur, Karnataka is
dedicated to an aspect of Parvati.
- ^ a
- ^ .
- ^ a
- ^ a
- ^ Kena Upanisad, III.1–-IV.3, cited in Müller and in
Sarma, pp. xxix-xxx.
- ^ Kinsley p.37
- ^ Weber in Hindu Mythology, Vedic and Purbnic By William J.
- ^ Tate p.176
- ^ Wilkins p.243
- ^ a
- ^ Kinsley p.43
- ^ Devi Bhagwat Purana, tantra Chudamani, Lalita
- ^ a
- ^ Kinsley p.35
- ^ a
- ^ Kennedy p.300
- ^ Kinsley p.49
- ^ Tate, p.383
- ^ Coleman p.65
- ^ Kinsley, p. 26.
- ^ Kennedy p.353-4
- ^ Wilkins pp.247
- ^ Myth of One Hindu Religion By Hadwa Dom pp.?
- ^ Bunce, Frederick W. Dictionary of Buddhist and Hindu
Iconography, p. 266. India: DK Print World Pvt. Ltd., 1997. ISBN
- ^ http://www.siddhashram.org/a20010837.shtml
- ^ Kennedy p.338
- ^ Kinsley p.126
- ^ a
- ^ Kinsley pp. 4
- ^ The Shaktas: an introductory comparative study
Payne A.E. 1933 pp. ??
- ^ The Hindu Religious Year By Muriel Marion Underhill p.50
Published 1991 Asian Educational Services ISBN
- ^ The Hindu Religious Year By Muriel Marion Underhill
- Hindu Goddesses: Vision of the Divine Feminine in the Hindu Religious
81-208-0379-5) by David Kinsley
- Researches Into the Nature and Affinity of Ancient and Hindu
Mythology by Vans Kennedy; Published
1831; Printed for Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown, and Green; 494 pages; Original
from Harvard University; Digitized Jul 11, 2005 
- Hindu Mythology, Vedic and Puranic by William J. Wilkins; Published
2001 (first published 1882); Adamant Media Corporation; 463 pages; ISBN
- Śiva, the Erotic Ascetic by Wendy Doniger O'Flaherty
- Mythology of the Hindus by Charles Coleman
- Sacred Places of Goddess: 108 Destinations by Karen Tate
|Data Arrangement, Technical Arrangement & Graphics|
|♦ Master Murugan Chillayah - Silambam Academy|
|References ( Mahā Shakti )|