Bahasa Melayu : Selsema / Malayalam : ജലദോഷം (Jaladhosham) / Telugu : సాధారణ జలుబు (Sādhāraṇa jalubu) / Français : Rhume
Common Cold Treatment
• Common cold is a viral infection
Symptoms to look for:
• Constant sneezing
• Blocked or runny nose
• In severe cases:
o Sore throat
o Dry cough
o Mild fever
• Viral infection of the respiratory tract
• It can spread from an infected person to another through sneezing
• Allergic disorders
• Change in weather
Natural home remedy using milk, turmeric powder and black pepper powder:
1. Take 1 glass of warm milk
2. Add 1 tsp of turmeric powder
3. Add 1 tsp of black pepper powder
4. Mix well
5. Drink 2 times everyday
Natural home remedy using carom seeds:
1. Crush 1 tbsp carom seeds
2. Put 1 tsp of this powder in a clean cloth
3. Tie the cloth in a bundle
4. Hold this bundle close to your nose and inhale
Natural home remedy using ladyfingers:
1.Take 100 gm ladyfingers or okra
2. Cut them into small pieces
3. Add them to ½ L hot water
4. Heat for 10-15 min
5. Inhale the steam coming from the mixture
• This gives relief from dry cough and throat irritation
Home Remedies for Cold - Common Cold Natural Treatment
Infection caused by rhinovirus leads to cold. With the mentioned cold virus affecting the nasal lining, body responds to the infection by giving way to a number of symptoms. ‘Inflammatory mediators’ contained in the immune system are activated as a consequent reaction of the infection caused. This in turn leads to sneezing, coughing, and headache which are triggered on as reflexes of the nervous system.
Apart from resorting to the medically bound therapeutic measures, a few homemade options accompanying the same can prove to be equally effective.
Common Cold Home Remedy- Natural Treatment for Cold
■ One such option includes the administration of cranberry soup. The homemade preparation includes heating of cranberries in water until they split themselves open. Having strained the resulting mixture honey can be added for taste. The desired thickening may be added with a dash of corn flour. Apart from being a rich source of Vitamin C, honey with its painkilling property helps to soothe head ache or body ache that may result from cold.
■ You may even go for a decoction made from ginger, lemon, garlic and water. Having boiled the ingredients you need to strain it. The resulting decoction can be sweetened with honey to be sipped hot and piping. Apart from the medicinal contents of the herbs being beneficial in their own way the drink will prove to be energizing and humidifying.
■ Dough made from half a cup of plain flour and a table spoon of dry mustard along with a bit of warm water may be spread out in the shape of a plaster. Placing the strip on the congested chest has been found to be immensely effective in getting rid of chest congestion- another fall out of cold. However if the skin reacts to it, the procedure should be stopped.
■ Chicken soup is another easily accessible homemade remedy to protect you against the devitalizing effects of common cold. Apart from ensuring proper nourishment it plays an effective role in doing away with the phlegm/mucus.
■ Herbal tea enriched with ginger helps in fighting the viral causes of common cold. Herbal tea with proper simmering should be enriched with spoonful of dried ginger. The decoction can be had throughout the day. The anti viral content of ginger will enliven you against the common sneezing symptoms of common cold.
■ Gurgling with herbs such as licorice and marsh mellow which acts against inflammation and mucus formation serves to be as effective as medicines prescribed to cure cough and cold.
■ Without involving any side effects massage of a few herbal oils meant for aromatherapy such as peppermint and lavender can prove to be effective in reducing stress and congestion. Lavender or yarrow with their known benefits in enhancing the immune system can activate a fatigue torn body.
■ Opting a diet rich in Vitamin C in forms of citrus fruits, melons, parsley and bell pepper will not only reduce inflammation and mucus formation with the help of their antihistamine content; but will also activate the functioning of the white blood corpuscles. It is also known for boosting the immune system.
■ To clear the painful effects of congested sinus- fallout of common cold, steam inhaling with boiling water enriched with seven to eight drops of eucalyptus or lavender oil is extremely beneficial.
■ Whenever you are having warm soup to deactivate your body, make sure to have it peppered with plenty of pepper. The capsaicin content of pepper acts as an antidote to cold. Particularly it helps in easing a blocked nose.
■ To relieve yourself from the irritating burden of a blocked nose, a drop or two of sesame oil being rubbed into it will prove to be relieving.
■ A homemade decoction made out of equal measures of honey and cider vinegar will prove to be effective if tablespoonful of the said mixture is taken after every four hours.
■ Yogurt taken regularly serves to prevent from the attack of the cold virus.
■ Garlic known for its multi functional therapeutic roles also helps one to ward off common cold with its immune enhancing potency and antibiotic quality. You can add it to your healthy recipes for soup or you may even go for its natural juice. Garlic added to vinegar may also work out well as a salad dressing.
■ Echinacea, another herb endowed with anti bacterial and anti viral qualities may be taken in the form of tincture to ward you against the sneezing cold and cough.
■ When you fall back upon some of the homemade naturopathic means of cure, make sure to cut down on the caffeine and alcohol intake as they spell disaster on your immunity. Moreover junk food, dairy products and food rich in sugar should be avoided as they add to the phlegm formation. Finally smoking known for contaminating the respiratory and other associated system should be strictly curtailed.
A representation of the molecular surface of one variant of human rhinovirus.
ICD-10 J00 ICD-9 460 DiseasesDB 31088 MedlinePlus 000678 eMedicine med/2339 MeSH D003139
The common cold (also known as nasopharyngitis, rhinopharyngitis, acute coryza, head cold, or simply a cold) is a viral infectious disease of the upper respiratory tract which primarily affects the nose. Symptoms include coughing, sore throat, runny nose, sneezing, and fever which usually resolve in seven to ten days, with some symptoms lasting up to three weeks. Well over 200 viruses are implicated in the cause of the common cold; the rhinoviruses are the most common.
Upper respiratory tract infections are loosely divided by the areas they affect, with the common cold primarily affecting the nose, the throat (pharyngitis), and the sinuses (sinusitis), occasionally involving either or both eyes via conjunctivitis. Symptoms are mostly due to the body's immune response to the infection rather than to tissue destruction by the viruses themselves. The primary method of prevention is by hand washing with some evidence to support the effectiveness of wearing face masks. The common cold may occasionally lead to pneumonia, either viral pneumonia or secondary bacterial pneumonia.
No cure for the common cold exists, but the symptoms can be treated. It is the most frequent infectious disease in humans with the average adult contracting two to three colds a year and the average child contracting between six and twelve. These infections have been with humanity since antiquity.
Signs and symptoms
The typical symptoms of a cold include cough, runny nose, nasal congestion and a sore throat, sometimes accompanied by muscle ache, fatigue, headache, and loss of appetite. A sore throat is present in about 40% of the cases and a cough in about 50%, while muscle ache occurs in about half. In adults, a fever is generally not present but it is common in infants and young children. The cough is usually mild compared to that accompanying influenza. While a cough and a fever indicate a higher likelihood of influenza in adults, a great deal of similarity exists between these two conditions. A number of the viruses that cause the common cold may also result in asymptomatic infections. The color of the sputum or nasal secretion may vary from clear to yellow to green and does not indicate the class of agent causing the infection.
A cold usually begins with fatigue, a feeling of being chilled, sneezing and a headache, followed in a couple of days by a runny nose and cough. Symptoms may begin within 16 hours of exposure and typically peak two to four days after onset. They usually resolve in seven to ten days but some can last for up to three weeks. The average duration of cough is 18 days and in some cases people develop a post-viral cough which can linger after the infection is gone. In children, the cough lasts for more than ten days in 35–40% of the cases and continues for more than 25 days in 10%.
Coronaviruses are a group of viruses known for causing the common cold. They have a halo, or crown-like (corona) appearance when viewed under an electron microscope.
The common cold is a viral infection of the upper respiratory tract. The most commonly implicated virus is a rhinovirus (30–80%), a type of picornavirus with 99 known serotypes. Others include: coronavirus (10–15%), influenza viruses (10-15%), adenoviruses (5%), human parainfluenza viruses, human respiratory syncytial virus, enteroviruses other than rhinoviruses, and metapneumovirus. Frequently more than one virus is present. In total over 200 different viral types are associated with colds.
The common cold virus is typically transmitted via airborne droplets (aerosols), direct contact with infected nasal secretions, or fomites (contaminated objects). Which of these routes is of primary importance has not been determined, however hand-to-hand and hand-to-surface-to-hand contact seems of more importance than transmission via aerosols. The viruses may survive for prolonged periods in the environment (over 18 hours for rhinoviruses) and can be picked up by people's hands and subsequently carried to their eyes or nose where infection occurs. Transmission is common in daycare and at school due to the proximity of many children with little immunity and frequently poor hygiene. These infections are then brought home to other members of the family. There is no evidence that recirculated air during commercial flight is a method of transmission. However, people sitting in proximity appear at greater risk. Rhinovirus-caused colds are most infectious during the first three days of symptoms; they are much less infectious afterwards.
The traditional folk theory is that a cold can be "caught" by prolonged exposure to cold weather such as rain or winter conditions, which is how the disease got its name. Some of the viruses that cause the common colds are seasonal, occurring more frequently during cold or wet weather. The reason for the seasonality has not been conclusively determined. This may occur due to cold induced changes in the respiratory system, decreased immune response, and low humidity increasing viral transmission rates, perhaps due to dry air allowing small viral droplets to disperse farther and stay in the air longer. It may be due to social factors, such as people spending more time indoors, near an infected person, and specifically children at school. There is some controversy over the role of body cooling as a risk factor for the common cold; the majority of the evidence suggests that it may result in greater susceptibility to infection.
Herd immunity, generated from previous exposure to cold viruses, plays an important role in limiting viral spread, as seen with younger populations that have greater rates of respiratory infections. Poor immune function is also a risk factor for disease. Insufficient sleep and malnutrition have been associated with a greater risk of developing infection following rhinovirus exposure; this is believed to be due to their effects on immune function. Breast feeding decreases the risk of acute otitis media and lower respiratory tract infections among other diseases and it is recommended that breast feeding be continued when an infant has a cold. In the developed world breast feeding may not however be protective against the common cold in and of itself.
The common cold is a disease of the upper respiratory tract.
The symptoms of the common cold are believed to be primarily related to the immune response to the virus. The mechanism of this immune response is virus specific. For example, the rhinovirus is typically acquired by direct contact; it binds to human ICAM-1 receptors through unknown mechanisms to trigger the release of inflammatory mediators. These inflammatory mediators then produce the symptoms. It does not generally cause damage to the nasal epithelium. The respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) on the other hand is contracted by both direct contact and airborne droplets. It then replicates in the nose and throat before frequently spreading to the lower respiratory tract. RSV does cause epithelium damage. Human parainfluenza virus typically results in inflammation of the nose, throat, and bronchi. In young children when it affects the trachea it may produce the symptoms of croup due to the small size of their airway.
The distinction between different viral upper respiratory tract infections is loosely based on the location of symptoms with the common cold affecting primarily the nose, pharyngitis the throat, and bronchitis the lungs. However there can be significant overlap and multiple areas can be affected. The common cold is frequently defined as nasal inflammation with varying amount of throat inflammation. Self-diagnosis is frequent. Isolation of the actual viral agent involved is rarely performed, and it is generally not possible to identify the virus type through symptoms.
The only possibly useful ways to reduce the spread of cold viruses are physical measures such as hand washing and face masks; in the healthcare environment, gowns and disposable gloves are also used. Isolation, e.g. quarantine, is not possible as the disease is so widespread and symptoms are non-specific. Vaccination has proved difficult as there are so many viruses involved and they mutate rapidly. Creation of a broadly effective vaccine is thus highly improbable.
Regular hand washing appears to be effective in reducing the transmission of cold viruses, especially among children. Whether the addition of antivirals or antibacterials to normal hand washing provides greater benefit is unknown. Wearing face masks when around people who are infected may be beneficial; however, there is insufficient evidence for maintaining a greater social distance. Zinc supplements may help to reduce the prevalence of colds. Routine vitamin C supplements do not reduce the risk or severity of the common cold, though they may reduce its duration.
No medications or herbal remedies have been conclusively demonstrated to shorten the duration of infection. Treatment thus comprises symptomatic relief. Getting plenty of rest, drinking fluids to maintain hydration, and gargling with warm salt water, are reasonable conservative measures. Much of the benefit from treatment is however attributed to the placebo effect.
Treatments that help alleviate symptoms include simple analgesics and antipyretics such as ibuprofen and acetaminophen/paracetamol. Evidence does not show that cough medicines are any more effective than simple analgesics and they are not recommended for use in children due to a lack of evidence supporting effectiveness and the potential for harm. In 2009, Canada restricted the use of over-the-counter cough and cold medication in children six years and under due to concerns regarding risks and unproven benefits. In adults there is insufficient evidence to support the use of cough medications. The misuse of dextromethorphan (an over-the-counter cough medicine) has led to its ban in a number of countries.
In adults the symptoms of a runny nose can be reduced by first-generation antihistamines; however, these sometimes have adverse effects such as drowsiness. Other decongestants such as pseudoephedrine are also effective in adults. Ipratropium nasal spray may reduce the symptoms of a runny nose but has little effect on stuffiness. Second-generation antihistamines however do not appear to be effective.
Due to lack of studies, it is not known whether increased fluid intake improves symptoms or shortens respiratory illness and a similar lack of data exists for the use of heated humidified air. One study has found chest vapor rub to provide some relief of nocturnal cough, congestion, and sleep difficulty.
Antibiotics and antivirals
Antibiotics have no effect against viral infections and thus have no effect against the viruses that cause the common cold. Due to their side effects they cause overall harm; however, they are still frequently prescribed. Some of the reasons that antibiotics are so commonly prescribed include: people's expectations for them, physicians' desire to do something, and the difficulty in excluding complications that may be amenable to antibiotics. There are no effective antiviral drugs for the common cold even though some preliminary research has shown benefit.
While there are many alternative treatments used for the common cold, there is insufficient scientific evidence to support the use of most. As of 2010 there is insufficient evidence to recommend for or against either honey or nasal irrigation. Studies suggested that zinc, if taken within 24 hours of the onset of symptoms, reduces the duration and severity of the common cold in otherwise healthy people. Due to wide differences between the studies, further research may be needed to determine how and when zinc may be effective. Whereas the zinc lozenges may produce side effects, there is only a weak rationale for physicians to recommend zinc for the treatment of the common cold. Vitamin C's effect on the common cold, while extensively researched, is disappointing, except in limited circumstances: specifically, individuals exercising vigorously in cold environments. Evidence about the usefulness of echinacea is inconsistent. Different types of echinacea supplements may vary in their effectiveness. It is unknown if garlic is effective. A single trial of vitamin D did not find benefit.
The common cold is generally mild and self-limiting with most symptoms generally improving in a week. Severe complications, if they occur, are usually in the very old, the very young or those who are immunosuppressed. Secondary bacterial infections may occur resulting in sinusitis, pharyngitis, or an ear infection. It is estimated that sinusitis occurs in 8% and an ear infection in 30% of cases.
The common cold is the most common human disease and all peoples globally are affected. Adults typically have two to five infections annually and children may have six to ten colds a year (and up to twelve colds a year for school children). Rates of symptomatic infections increase in the elderly due to a worsening immune system.
Native Americans and Eskimos are more likely to be infected with colds and develop complications such as otitis media than Caucasians. This may be explained by issues such as poverty and overcrowding rather than by ethnicity.
While the cause of the common cold has only been identified since the 1950s the disease has been with humanity since antiquity. Its symptoms and treatment are described in the Egyptian Ebers papyrus, the oldest existing medical text, written before the 16th century BCE. The name "cold" came into use in the 16th century, due to the similarity between its symptoms and those of exposure to cold weather.
In the United Kingdom, the Common Cold Unit was set up by the Medical Research Council in 1946 and it was here that the rhinovirus was discovered in 1956. In the 1970s, the CCU demonstrated that treatment with interferon during the incubation phase of rhinovirus infection protects somewhat against the disease, but no practical treatment could be developed. The unit was closed in 1989, two years after it completed research of zinc gluconate lozenges in the prophylaxis and treatment of rhinovirus colds, the only successful treatment in the history of the unit.
Society and culture
The economic impact of the common cold is not well understood in much of the world. In the United States, the common cold leads to 75–100 million physician visits annually at a conservative cost estimate of $7.7 billion per year. Americans spend $2.9 billion on over-the-counter drugs and another $400 million on prescription medicines for symptomatic relief. More than one-third of people who saw a doctor received an antibiotic prescription, which has implications for antibiotic resistance. An estimated 22–189 million school days are missed annually due to a cold. As a result, parents missed 126 million workdays to stay home to care for their children. When added to the 150 million workdays missed by employees suffering from a cold, the total economic impact of cold-related work loss exceeds $20 billion per year. This accounts for 40% of time lost from work in the United States.
A number of antivirals have been tested for effectiveness in the common cold; however as of 2009 none have been both found effective and licensed for use. There are ongoing trials of the anti-viral drug pleconaril which shows promise against picornaviruses as well as trials of BTA-798. The oral form of pleconaril had safety issues and an aerosol form is being studied.
DRACO, a broad-spectrum antiviral therapy being developed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, has shown preliminary effectiveness in treating rhinovirus, as well as a number of other infectious viruses.
Researchers from University of Maryland, College Park and University of Wisconsin–Madison have mapped the genome for all known virus strains that cause the common cold.
|Information of sources|
^ a b Eccles Pg. 24
Ronald Eccles, Olaf Weber (eds) (2009). Common cold. Basel: Birkhäuser. ISBN 978-3-7643-9894-1.