Bahasa Melayu : Kelemumur / Malayalam : തലപ്പുറ്റ് (Thalapputtu) / തലയിലെ താരണം (Thalayile Thaaranam) / Telugu : చుండ్రు (Cuṇḍru) / Français : Pellicules
Dandruff TreatmentDandruff: • Dandruff is a condition in which dead skin cells accumulate and fall off from the scalp Symptoms to look for: • When you comb or scratch, shiny silver flakes fall from the scalp • Itching which can lead to reddening of the scalp Causes: • Stress • Extreme cold or hot weather • Fatigue • Incorrect diet • Energy loss due to an illness or infection • Artificial styling products • Harsh shampoos
Natural home remedy using coconut oil and camphor:
1. Heat 4 tbsp of coconut oil
2. Add 1 piece of camphor while it's heating
3. Mix well
4. Massage on scalp when lukewarm before bedtime
5. Leave it overnight
Natural home remedy using fenugreek seeds:
1.Take 2 tbsp fenugreek seeds
2. Soak them in water overnight
3. Sieve the mixture
4. Collect the seeds
5. Crush seeds to a fine paste
6. Massage this paste on the scalp
7. Wash it off with soap-nut water
Natural home remedy using egg whites, lemon juice and margosa leaves:
1, Crush 2 egg whites
2. Mix 4 tbsp of lemon juice
3. Mix well
4. Apply on scalp
5. Leave it for ½ hour
6. Crush a handful of margosa leaves
7. Soak this paste in ½ L water
8. Mix well
9. Wash hair with this water followed by plain water
Herbal dandruff treatment • Dandruff home remedies
Dandruff is a physiological condition whereby the dead skin cells of the scalp are shaded as flakes. While it is natural for the dead cells from scalp to flake; it becomes a disease of embarrassing concern when flaking exceeds 487,000 cells per square centimeters. The disorder affecting the scalp marked by itching and increased flaking; dandruff is caused by the heightened secretion of ‘sebum’ (oil secreted by the sebaceous gland). Also triggered by micro organisms as their metabolic waste, lack of individual resistance may be another of its causes.
Caused mostly due to the increased secretion of sebum, restoration of the scalp's pH balance usually settles the issue. Dandruff is one of the ailments where home remedies are particularly effective. This is particularly true of dry dandruff; but cases of oily dandruff are difficult to be treated.
16 effective home remedies for dandruff
■ Besides resorting to a healthy hare care regimen, certain home centric use of natural herbs and fruits work wonders for dandruff. One such schedule includes regular massaging of lemon into your scalp. Following the massage, you are required to wash your scalp with shampoo.
■ Similarly lemon juice added to that of coconut oil ensures the right pH balance whereby healthiness of scalp protects against dandruff. The mixture may be made out of lemon juice and mustard oil as well. The citric acid of lemon juice helps to restore the required balance.
■ Before choosing to apply shampoo a soothing massage of oil, generally ensures healthy hair free from dandruff. You may go for coconut oil; but massage of almond or olive oil will prove to be more effective.
■ In cases of oily dandruff hot bath or a steam shower is naturally effective as a remedial option. But the same option should be avoided in cases of oily dandruff.
■ Apart from lemon, curd also can be included as one of the remedial options. Application of curd is especially effective for dandruff of the oily type.
■ Acetic acid in plain vinegar as well as in cider vinegar is helpful to combat conditions of dandruff. Having foamed your head with an effective herbal shampoo, you can rinse it off with water. For the final round of washing you can use vinegar diluted in water. Weekly use of the same will prove to be an effective option.
■ You can also try out another condition whereby you add two table spoon measures of cider vinegar to six similar measures of water. The same can be applied to the scalp with cotton and left overnight. The next morning you can have it washed off with shampoo.
■ Rubbing a sun baked lemon peel to the affected scalp before immersing the same in coconut milk is another good option.
■ In case you have colored hair, it is advisable to avoid lemon and vinegar. For the dandruff treatment option for colored hair beetroot juice and juice extracted out of ginger is an effective alternative.
■ Amalgam of lime juice and vinegar in the ratio of one is to two measures in tea spoon works wonder to cure dandruff. Overnight application is to be followed by rinsing it clean with an egg based shampoo.
■ In case you are not allergic to eggs, application of two beaten eggs diluted with little water also comes in handy.
■ The multi dimensional medicinal uses of aloe vera also serve to be effective from the point of view of dandruff cure. Application of its gel is equally effective if used prior to washing of head.
■ Besides aloe vera, rose also makes for effective dandruff treatment. Soaked rose merry leaves may be boiled in sufficient amount of water. The consequent mixture of the leaves and two spoonful measures of white vinegar can be applied to the affected scalp after washing the same.
■ Fenugreek paste applied overnight to the dandruff prone scalp can be another remedial measure. It can also be used an hour before washing of head.
■ Washing of head with ritha another natural ingredient by the name of ‘acacia concina’ serves as a protection against dandruff prone scalp.
■ Washing of head with two tablespoons of powdered green gram and six similar measures of curd is another effective remedial means.
It must be borne in mind that processed or tinned food including that of tinned fruits acts as an antidote to the cure of dandruff. Besides avoiding these, hair should be brushed properly to stimulate blood circulation and means adapted to free scalp from accumulated dirt and dead cells.
Dandruff is the shedding of dead skin cells from the scalp. As skin cells die a small amount of flaking is normal; about 487,000 cells/cm2 get released normally after detergent treatment. Some people, however, experience an unusually large amount of flaking either chronically or as a result of certain triggers, up to 800,000 cells/cm2, which can also be accompanied by redness and irritation.
Dandruff is a common scalp disorder affecting almost half of the population at the post-pubertal age and of any gender and ethnicity. It often causes itching. It has been well established that keratinocytes play a key role in the expression and generation of immunological reactions during dandruff formation. The severity of dandruff may fluctuate with season as it often worsens in winter. Most cases of dandruff can be easily treated with specialized shampoos. There is, however, no true cure.
Those affected by dandruff find that it can cause social or self-esteem problems, indicating treatment for both psychological and physiological reasons.
Dandruff can have several causes, including simple dry skin, irritated, oily skin, not shampooing often enough, psoriasis, eczema, Sensitivity to hair care products, or a yeast-like fungus.
Simple dry skin is the most common cause of flaking dandruff.
As the epidermal layer continually replaces itself, cells are pushed outward where they eventually die and flake off. For most individuals, these flakes of skin are too small to be visible. However, certain conditions cause cell turnover to be unusually rapid, especially in the scalp. It is hypothesized that for people with dandruff, skin cells may mature and be shed in 2–7 days, as opposed to around a month in people without dandruff. The result is that dead skin cells are shed in large, oily clumps, which appear as white or grayish patches on the scalp, skin and clothes.
According to one study, dandruff has been shown to possibly be the result of three factors :
-Skin oil commonly referred to as sebum or sebaceous secretions
-The metabolic by-products of skin micro-organisms (most specifically Malassezia yeasts)
-Individual susceptibility and allergy sensitivity.
Older literature cites the fungus Malassezia furfur (previously known as Pityrosporum ovale) as the cause of dandruff. While this species does occur naturally on the skin surface of both healthy people and those with dandruff, in 2007 it was discovered that the responsible agent is a scalp specific fungus, Malassezia globosa, that metabolizes triglycerides present in sebum by the expression of lipase, resulting in a lipid byproduct oleic acid (OA). During dandruff, the levels of Malassezia increase by 1.5 to 2 times its normal level. Penetration by OA of the top layer of the epidermis, the stratum corneum, results in an inflammatory response in susceptible persons which disturbs homeostasis and results in erratic cleavage of stratum corneum cells.
Dandruff can also be a manifestation of an allergic reaction to chemicals in hair gels, sprays, and shampoos, hair oils, or sometimes even dandruff medications like ketoconazole.
There is some evidence that excessive perspiration and climate have significant roles in the pathogenesis of dandruff.
Dandruff scale is a cluster of corneocytes, which have retained a large degree of cohesion with one another and detach as such from the surface of the stratum corneum. A corneocyte is a protein complex that is made of tiny threads of keratin in an organised matrix. The size and abundance of scales are heterogeneous from one site to another and over time. Parakeratotic cells often make up part of dandruff. Their numbers are related to the severity of the clinical manifestations, which may also be influenced by seborrhea.
Shampoos use a combination of ingredients to control dandruff. The pathogenesis of dandruff involves hyperproliferation of keratinocytes, resulting in deregulation of keratinization. The corneocytes clump together, manifesting as large flakes of skin. Essentially, keratolytic agents such as salicylic acid and sulphur loosen the attachments between the corneocytes and allow them to get swiped off.
Regulators of keratinization
Zinc pyrithione (ZPT) heals the scalp by normalizing the epithelial keratinization or sebum production or both. Some studies have shown a significant reduction in the number of yeasts after use of ZPT, which is an antifungal and antibacterial agent. A study by Warner et al. demonstrates a dramatic reduction of structural abnormalities found in dandruff with the use of ZPT; the population abundance of Malassezia decreases, parakeratosis gets eliminated and corneocytes lipid inclusions are diminished.
The parakeratotic properties of topical corticosteroids depend on the structure of the agent, the vehicle and the skin onto which it is used. Corticosteroids work via their anti-inflammatory and antiproliferative effects.
It is believed that selenium sulfide controls dandruff via its anti Malassezia effect rather than by its antiproliferative effect, although it has an effect in reducing cell turnover. It has anti-seborrheic properties as well as cytostatic effect on cells of the epidermal and follicular epithelium. The excessive oiliness after use of this agent has been reported in many patients as adverse drug effect.
Coal tar is a keratoplastic causing the skin to shed dead cells from the top layer and slow skin cell growth.
Imidazole antifungal agents
Imidazole topical antifungals such as ketoconazole act by blocking the biosynthesis of ergosterol, the primary sterol derivative of the fungal cell membrane. Changes in membrane permeability caused by ergosterol depletion are incompatible with fungal growth and survival.
Ketoconazole is a broad spectrum, antimycotic agent that is active against both Candida and M. furfur. Of all the imidazoles, ketoconazole has become the leading contender among treatment options because of its effectiveness in treating seborrheic dermatitis as well.
In contrast to the imidazole antifungals, the hydroxypyridones do not affect sterol biosynthesis; instead they interfere with the active transport of essential macromolecule precursor, cell membrane integrity and the respiratory process of cells. Ciclopirox is widely used as an anti-dandruff agent in most preparations.
Margosa has anti-fungal properties that can be effective in treating dandruff.
Black pepper contains the dandruff fighting minerals zinc and selenium. In Indian traditional Áyurveédic, powdered black pepper has been used to treat dandruff.
In Indian, Japanese, Unani (Roghan Baiza Murgh), and Chinese traditional medicine, egg oil was traditionally used as a treatment for dandruff, but there is no clinical evidence to indicate efficacy for this purpose.
Specific diagnosis and treatment of dandruff may be difficult as its spectrum blurs with those of seborrhoeic dermatitis and some other scale shedding conditions. In seborrhoeic dermatitis redness and itching frequently occurs around the folds of the nose and eyebrow areas, not just the scalp. Dry, thick, well-defined lesions consisting of large, silvery scales may be traced to the less common affliction of the scalp psoriasis.
Inflammation and extension of scaling outside the scalp exclude the diagnosis of dandruff from seborrhoeic dermatitis. However, many reports suggest a clear link between the two clinical entities - the mildest form of the clinical presentation of seborrhoeic dermatitis as dandruff, where the inflammation is minimal and remain subclinical.
Seasonal changes, stress, and immuno-suppression seem to affect seborrheic dermatitis.
|Information of sources|
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