English pronunciation : véda / Vētā / Vētam / Vēdham āyvukaḷ / ñāṉam Vaḷarcci Peṟa / Rikvēdaṁ / Rik vētam / Yajūr vētam / Sāma vētam / Atarvaṉa vētam /
Sanskrit संस्कृतम् : वेद /
Tamil தமிழ் : வேதா / வேதம் ஆய்வுகள் / ஞானம் வளர்ச்சி பெற / ரிக் வேதம் / யஜூர் வேதம் / சாம வேதம் / அதர்வன வேதம்
Bahasa Melayu : Rigvéda / Yajurveda / Sāmavéda / Atharvavéda / Malayalam : not_available / Telugu : రుగ్వేదం ( Rugvēdaṁ ) / యజుర్వేదం ( Yajurvēdaṁ) / సామవేదం ( Sāmavēdaṁ ) / అధర్వ వేదం ( Adharva vēdaṁ ) / Français : not_available
The Sāmavéda ( Sanskrit : सामवेदः, Sāmavéda, from sāman "melody" + véda "knowledge" ), is second ( in the usual order ) of the four Védas, the ancient core Hindu scriptures. Its earliest parts are believed to date from 1700 BC ( since all of its verses are from the Rigvéda ) and it ranks next in sanctity and liturgical importance to the Rigvéda. It consists of a collection ( Saṃhitā ) of hymns, portions of hymns, and detached verses, all but 75 taken from the Sakala Sakha of the Rigvéda, the other 75 belong to the Bashkala Sakha, to be sung, using specifically indicated melodies called Samagana, by Udgatar priests at sacrifices in which the juice of the Soma plant, clarified and mixed with milk and other ingredients, is offered in libation to various deities.
The verses have been transposed and re-arranged, without reference to their original order, to suit the rituals in which they were to be employed. There are frequent variations from the text of the Rigvéda that are in some cases glosses but in others offer an older pronunciation than that of the Rigvéda ( such as [ai] for common [e] ). When sung the verses are further altered by prolongation, repetition and insertion of stray syllables ( stobha ), as well as various modulations, rests and other modifications prescribed in the song-books ( Ganas ). Sāmavéda's Upavéda ( technical manual ) is Gāndharvavéda that deals not only with the topics of music but also of dance and theatre.
The Sāmavéda Saṃhitā ( from sāman, the term for a melody applied to metrical hymn or song of praise ) consists of 1549 stanzas, taken almost entirely ( except for 78 stanzas ) from the Rigvéda. Like the Rigvédic stanzas in the Yajurveda, the Samans have been changed and adapted for use in singing. Some of the Rigvédic verses are repeated more than once. Including repetitions, there are a total of 1875 verses numbered in the Sāmavéda recension translated by Griffith. 2 major recensions remain today, the Kauthuma / Ranayaniya and the Jaiminiya. Its purpose was liturgical, as the repertoire of the udgātṛ or "singer" priests who took part in the sacrifice.
R. T. H. Griffith says that there are 3 recensions of the text of the Sāmavéda Saṃhitā:
- the Kauthuma recension is current in Gujarat, Uttar Pradesh, Orissa and since a few decades in Darbhanga, Bihar,
- the Jaiminiya in the Carnatic, Tamilnadu and Kerala,
- and the Rāṇāyanīya in the Mahārastra, Gokarna.
While the Kauthuma recension has been published ( Saṃhitā, Brāhmaṃā, Shrauta (Śrauta)Sũtra and ancillary Sũtras, mainly by the late B.R. Sharma ), parts of the Jaiminiya tradition remain unpublished. There is an edition of the first part of the Saṃhitā by W. Caland and of the Brāhmaṃā by Raghu Vira and Lokesh Chandra, as well as the neglected Upanishad or Upaniṣads, but only parts of the Shrauta (Śrauta)Sũtra. The song books remain unpublished and the tradition is rapidly fading. However, an edition is now being prepared by some well-known Sāmavéda specialists.
|Data Arrangement, Technical Arrangement & Graphics|
|• Master Murugan Chillayah - Silambam Academy|
|References ( Sāmavéda )|
|• A. Parpola. The literature & study of the Jaiminīya Sāmavéda. Studia Orientalia XLIII:6. Helsinki 1973|
|• A. Parpola. The decipherment of the SamaVédic notation of the Jaiminīyas. Finnish Oriental Society 1988|
|• Griffith (Benares, 1893) english translation|
|• Griffith, Ralph T. H. The Sāmavéda Saṃhitā. Text, Translation, Commentary & Notes in English, first published 1893|
|• Griffith, Ralph T. H. The Sāmavéda Saṃhitā. p. vi. op. cit.|
|• H. Oertel. The Jaiminīya or Talavakāra Upaniṣad Brāhmaṃā. Text, translation, and notes.|
|• Mridul Kirti translation in Hindi called "Samvéda Ka Hindi Padyanuvad"|
|• Nag Sharan Singh and Surendra Pratap, 1991 -Revised edition with text in Devanagari (full metrical marks for chanting)|
|• Raghu Vira and Lokesh Chandra. 1954. Jaiminīya-Brāhmaṃā of the Sāmavéda. (SarāŚvati-Vihara Series 31), Delhi 1986|
|• Satyavrata Samashrami in Bibl. Ind. (Calcutta, 1873) edited and published|
|• Theodor Benfey (Leipzig, 1848, with a German translation) edited and published|
|• W. Caland, Die Jaiminīya-Saṃhitā mit einer Einleitung über die Sāmavéda-literatur. Breslau 1907|